Regulations & Bylaws

Section 1: Principles

Article 1 – Objectives

Article 2 – Relationship with the Administration

Section 2: The formation of the Student Council

Article 3 – Composition and terms of office

Article 4 – Elections 

Article 5 – Eligibility and voting rights 

Article 6 – Election system and vacancies 

Article 7 – Organization of the elections

Section 3: Organization

Article 8 – Internal Meetings

Article 9 – Decisions

Article 10 – Special functions

Article 11 – Town-Hall meeting

Article 12 – Student Council Records

Section 4: Committees and Student Organizations

Article 13 – Committees

Article 14 – Relationship between Student Council and the Committees

Article 15 – Student Organizations and the Allocation Board (ALBO)

Article 16 – Student Council Funding

Section 5: Final Provisions

Article 17 – Interpretation and amendments

Article 18 – Adoption and coming into force

ANNEX 1: Election Regulations


(1) Scope

(2) Polling dates

(3) The Election Commission

(4) Nominations

(5) The ballot

(6) Vote count and results

(7) Run-off elections

(8) Election of class representatives

(9) The James L. Paddock Teaching Award (Paddock Award)

(10) Announcements

(11) Disputes


By-Laws of the Student Council of The Fletcher School of Law and Diplomacy

Adopted on May 18, 2002

Preamble

We, the students of The Fletcher School of Law and Diplomacy (hereinafter The Fletcher School), Affirming the importance of active student participation in the current administration and future development of The Fletcher School,

Recognizing that the most valuable asset of The Fletcher School is the members of its community,

Considering that accountability and a set of binding rules are a necessary requirement for the fair, equitable, transparent and effective functioning of the Student Council,

Have adopted the following By-Laws of the Student Council of The Fletcher School:

Section 1: Principles

Article 1 – Objectives

The Student Council of The Fletcher School (hereinafter the Student Council) shall

  • represent the interests, concerns and ideas of the Student Body to various entities including the Administration, the Faculty, the Board of Overseers, the Alumni of The Fletcher School and other entities of the Tufts University Community,
  • ensure the involvement of the Student Body in the development of The Fletcher School,
  • participate in the strengthening of the Fletcher community,
  • work towards the improvement of academic quality, student facilities and services at The Fletcher School,
  • facilitate and coordinate the funding of student activities.

Article 2 – Relationship with the Administration

  1. The Fletcher School welcomes and encourages the active participation of the students in the administration, affirming the importance of a responsible democratic student representation in order to facilitate the functioning of the School.
  2. The Student Council shall meet at least monthly with representatives of the Administration including the Dean, the Academic Dean, the Executive Associate Dean, the Senior Associate Dean and the Director of Finance and Administration.
  3. The meeting is not open to the general community. The Student Council or the Administration may however invite any other individual appropriate for a specific meeting.
  4. The minutes of the meeting shall be made available to the entire Student Body.
  5. For regular and ad-hoc meetings to be official they must include three of the five aforementioned representatives of the Administration and five members of the Student Council.


Section 2: The formation of the Student Council

Article 3 – Composition and terms of office

  1. The Student Council is composed of seven elected students currently enrolled at The Fletcher School of Law and Diplomacy: three first-year representatives, three second-year representatives and one Ph.D. representative.
  2. The members of the Student Council are elected for one academic year.

Article 4 – Elections

  1. The Student Council is elected in two election cycles, one in the spring and one in the fall term. The three second-year representatives are elected at the end of the spring term for the following academic year. The three first-year representatives and the Ph.D. representative are elected at the beginning of the fall term for the ongoing academic year.
  2. The election in the spring term shall be held no earlier than thirty-five and no later than seven calendar days before the last day of classes. The election in the fall shall not be held later than twenty-one calendar days after the first day of classes.

Article 5 – Eligibility and voting rights

  1. The second-year representatives are elected amongst the second-year students (non Ph.D. students who are enrolled in their first or second semester during the spring term of the election and who are not graduating after the end of the spring term). A second-year representative must be enrolled at The Fletcher School for two consecutive fall and spring terms after the election.
  2. Only second-year students are allowed to vote in the election of the second-year representatives.
  3. The first-year representatives are elected amongst the first-year students (non Ph.D. students who are enrolled in their first semester during the fall term of the election).
  4. Only first-year students are allowed to vote in the election of the first-year representatives.
  5. The Ph.D. representative is elected among the Ph.D. students (students enrolled in the Ph.D. program including students directly admitted into the Ph.D. program). Only Ph.D. students are allowed to vote in the election of the Ph.D. representative.
  6. Each first-year and each second-year student has three votes but may cast not more than one vote per candidate. Each Ph.D. student has one vote.

Article 6 – Election system and vacancies

  1. The three first-year students receiving the most votes are elected first-year representatives, the three second-year students receiving the most votes are elected second-year representatives. The Ph.D. student receiving a plurality of votes is elected Ph.D. representative.
  2. If a member of the Student Council resigns, withdraws from The Fletcher School or takes an academic leave of absence during his or her term of office, the vacancy shall be filled in a by-election. The newly elected representative shall serve until the regular end of his or her predecessor's office.

Article 7 – Organization of the elections

The responsibility for the organization of the elections lies with the Student Council. The Election Regulation (Annex 1) which are an integral part of these By-Laws shall apply.

Section 3: Organization

Article 8 – Internal Meetings

The members of the Student Council meet amongst themselves on a regular basis. Any member of the of the Student Council may request additional meetings.

Article 9 – Decisions

  1. The Student Council strives for consensus amongst its members. If consensus cannot be reached, decisions are made by voting. Voting is open unless at least two members of the Student Council request a secret vote.
  2. Decisions are usually taken during a meeting which all members of the Student Council are able to attend. Decisions can also be taken via phone, fax or email unless a member of the Student Council requests a meeting.
  3. All decisions must be adopted by an absolute majority of the members of the Student Council unless otherwise provided for in these By-Laws.

Article 10 – Special functions

No later than 14 calendar days after the announcement of the election results in the fall term the members of the Student Council shall delegate amongst themselves at least the following functions:

  • Internal Coordinator: He or she shall facilitate the internal functioning of the Student Council. He or she shall coordinate the schedules of the Student Council members in order to set meeting times for the monthly meeting with the Administration and all internal meetings of the Student Council. He or she shall acknowledge the receipt of emails and keep track of all concerns brought to the attention of the Student Council.
  • Secretary: He or she shall maintain the records of the Student Council as described in Article 13 of these Statutes. He or she shall take the minutes at all meetings with the Administration and publish them in accordance with Article 2(4) of these By-Laws.
  • Student Committee Liaison: He or she shall ensure a permanent contact and exchange of information between the student representatives in the Committees and the Student Council. He or she shall follow the work of the Committees and coordinates the issues which will be dealt with jointly by the Student Council and the Committees.
  • ALBO Coordinator: He or she shall be the primary contact for all budgetary issues of the Student Organizations and shall coordinate on behalf of the Student Council the ALBO Meetings.
  • Coordinator for Student Organizations and cultural nights: He or she shall be the primary contact for all matters and concerns related to Student Organizations and cultural nights.
  • Information Technology Liaison: He or she shall be the primary contact for all issues related to information technology including the Student Council website.
  • Graduate Student Council Liaison: He or she shall maintain a permanent contact and facilitate the exchange of information between the Student Council and the student representatives of other Tufts Graduate Schools or Programs.

The Student Council shall designate a chairperson for the meetings with the Administration. This position may rotate on a monthly basis subject to a decision by the Student Council. Other than the aforementioned functions can be established by decision of the Student Council.

All members of the Student Council enjoy equal rights of participation. The aforementioned functions do not appear in any specific order and do not represent any hierarchy amongst the members of the Student Council.

Each special function shall be determined by consensus. All tasks are divided up amongst the members of the Student Council ensuring an equal workload of every member.

Article 11 – Town-Hall meeting

  1. The Student Council shall hold a minimum of one Town-Hall Meeting per spring and fall term. The Town-Hall Meeting shall be an open forum amongst students and the Student Council to address students' concerns relating to The Fletcher School.
  2. The Town-Hall Meeting shall be announced at least five business days before the meeting takes place.
  3. Minutes shall be recorded but student names shall be omitted.

Article 12 – Student Council Records

The Student Council shall maintains its own records in order to retain an institutional memory. All important decisions and practices of the Student Council in office shall therefore be reflected in the records.

The records shall include:

  • the minutes of all meetings with the Administration,
  • decisions about Council policy,
  • a copy of all budget proposals and decisions made by ALBO as communicated to the Student Organizations,
  • all correspondence, electronic or otherwise, between students and the Student Council,
  • all materials distributed to the Student Council by the Administration,
  • the complete results and vote counts of all elections organized under the auspices of the Student Council (e.g. elections of the Student Council, elections of the student representatives in the Committees and Advisory Boards, elections of the class representatives),
  • all proposed amendments and associated vote counts according to Art. 17(2) of these By-Laws.

Section 4: Committees and Student Organizations

Article 13 – Committees

The Fletcher School establishes special Committees and Advisory Boards on a permanent and ad-hoc basis. Normally at least two members of each Committee or Advisory Board shall be members of the Student Body.

As of the enactment of these Statutes The Fletcher School has established the following permanent and ad hoc Committees and Advisory Boards:

  • Committee on Curriculum and Requirements for Degrees
  • Committee on Development and Alumni Relations
  • Committee on the Library
  • Committee on Diversity and Affirmative Action
  • Committee on the Honor Code
  • Committee on Energy Efficiency
  • Committee on Information Technology
  • Committee on Strategic Marketing
  • Committee on Student Academic Programs
  • Committee on Career Services
  • Student Advisory Board to the Office of Career Services
  • Committee on the Ph.D. program
  • Committee on Admissions and Scholarships
  • Committee on Budget and Prioritization
  • Committee on GMAP

Elections of the student representatives to the Committees and Advisory Boards are held together with the election of the Student Council in the fall term. The Election Regulation (Annex 1) shall apply.

The Student Body is represented by one first-year student (non Ph.D. student who is enrolled in his or her first semester during the fall term of the election) and one second-year student (non Ph.D. student who is enrolled in at least his or her second semester during the fall term of the election) in each of the following Committees:

  • Committee on Curriculum and Requirements for Degrees
  • Committee on Development and Alumni Relations
  • Committee on the Library
  • Committee on Diversity and Affirmative Action
  • Committee on the Honor Code
  • Committee on Energy Efficiency
  • Committee on Information Technology
  • Committee on Strategic Marketing
  • Committee on Student Academic Programs
  • Committee on Career Services.

The Student Body is represented by six students in the Student Advisory Board to the Office of Career Services. One first-year and one second-year student are elected for the private, the public and the non-profit sector respectively.

First-year representatives to the Committees and Advisory Boards are elected by first-year students, second-year representatives are elected by second-year students. Each student has one vote for each position he or she is eligible to vote for. The student receiving a plurality of votes is elected for a position.

Two Ph.D. students which are elected by Ph.D. students only shall represent the Student Body to the Committee on the Ph.D. Program. The two students receiving the most votes are elected for these positions.

Article 14 – Relationship between Student Council and the Committees

The Student Council is the general institution representing the Student Body. The Committees and Advisory Boards only address specific issues in their respective fields.

The Student Council shall maintain constant communication with the student representatives in the various Committees and Advisory Boards through the Student Committee Liaison.

Article 15 – Student Organizations and the Allocation Board (ALBO)

A new student group must fulfill the following requirements prior to operating as a Fletcher Student Organization:

  • Notification must be sent to both the Student Council as well as to the Executive Associate Dean.
  • The notification must include the name of the new group, a description of its goals and purposes ("mission statement"), the name and address of two chairpersons for contact purposes as well as a list of ten Fletcher students, complete with name and signature, of those in support of the group.

A Committee (the Allocation Board) composed of the Student Council and advising members of the administration normally including the Director of Finance and Administration, the Coordinator of Student Affairs and the Budget Coordinator reviews Student Organization funding proposals.

The Allocation Board makes funding awards twice per year: in late September/early October for the ongoing fall term and in early/mid-December for the following spring term.

In addition to the rules in these By-Laws the guidelines for Student Organizations as laid down in the Student Handbook shall apply. The guidelines for Student Organizations may be changed by decision of the Student Council at any time.

Article 16 – Student Council Funding

5% of the overall Student Organization budget can be allocated to the Student Council. Such funding shall be used to cover administrative costs and initiatives sponsored by the Student Council.

Section 5: Final Provisions

Article 17 – Interpretation and amendments

  1. Questions of interpretation arising out of these are to be solved by a reasonable decision of the Student Council.
  2. Amendments to these Statutes can be proposed by a member of the Student Council or a group of at least 20 students currently enrolled at The Fletcher School. Amendments require a majority of five members of the Student Council. The Student Council can decide to submit the amendment proposal to a vote by the Student Body. In this case a 2/3 majority of votes representing 40% of the entire Student Body of The Fletcher School is required.
  3. The list of Committees and Advisory Boards in Article 13 (2) and (4) of these By-Laws as well as in §10 of Annex 1 to these By-Laws will be updated on a current basis depending on the creation or abrogation of Committees and Advisory Boards. Such updates are not subject to Article 17 (2).

Article 18 – Adoption and coming into force

These By-Laws are subject to adoption by a unanimous vote of the Student Council of The Fletcher School and come into force the day after their adoption.

Annex 1: Election Regulation

(1) Scope

This Election Regulation shall apply to all elections organized under the auspices of the Student Council (e.g. the election of the members of the Student Council, the election of the student representatives in the Committees and Advisory Boards, the election of the class representatives (Class Speaker, Class Secretary, Reunion Chair and Fund Agent).

(2) Polling dates

  1. The Student Council sets the date and time for the beginning and the duration of an election in compliance with the By-Laws. The polling dates must be announced at least ten calendar days before the beginning of the election.
  2. Elections shall be held over the course of at least five calendar days.

(3) The Election Commission

  1. The Student Council shall appoint an Election Commission. The Commission consists of three students currently enrolled at The Fletcher School which are not running for office in the election. The members of the Election Commission do not have to be members of the Student Council.
  2. The Election Commission is responsible for the practical organization of the entire election, including nomination, polling procedures, vote counts and announcement of the results.
  3. The Election Commission must be appointed at the announcement of the polling dates. The appointment shall be announced publicly.

(4) Nominations

  1. After the announcement of the polling dates candidates running for office can be nominated. Self-nominations are permitted.
  2. Nominations should be sent to the Election Commission. Nominations sent to the Student Council shall be forwarded to the Election Commission.
  3. Nominations shall be accepted over a period of seven calendar days. The Student Council can extend or shorten the nomination period in exceptional cases.
  4. After the end of the nomination period the Election Commission shall contact the nominees in order to get their approval on the nomination. Only candidates who have affirmed that they will serve in case that they are elected shall be put on the ballot.
  5. The affirmed nominees should be given an opportunity to present themselves to the Student Body.

(5) The ballot

  1. The Student Council decides on proposal by the Election Commission whether the elections are held electronically or by paper ballot. In either case the Election Commission shall ensure the secrecy of the vote as well as the prevention of fraud.
  2. The Election Commission prepares the ballots and supervises the course of the election. To ensure a proper voting procedure additional election aides can be appointed by the Election Commission. Only students currently enrolled at The Fletcher School who are not running for office in the election can be appointed.
  3. During the election days the Election Commission shall take the appropriate steps (e.g. by sending out daily emails) to remind the Student Body of the ongoing elections.

(6) Vote count and results

  1. The Election Commission shall proceed to a vote count immediately after the end of the elections.
  2. The result of the vote count shall be transmitted to the Student Council.
  3. The complete elections results shall be made available to the Student Body by the Election Commission.

(7) Run-off elections

In case of a tie run-off elections shall be held immediately. This Election Regulation shall apply accordingly.

(8) Election of class representatives

  1. The election of the class representatives (Class Speaker, Class Secretary, Reunion Chair and Fund Agent) shall be held in conjunction with the election in the spring term.
  2. Only students graduating after the ongoing spring or the following fall semester can be elected and are eligible to vote for the class representatives. §4 (1) – (4) of this regulation shall apply.
  3. Each student has one vote for each position of class representatives. The candidate receiving the absolute majority of votes is elected for a position.
  4. If no candidate receives an absolute majority of votes a run-off election between the two candidates receiving the largest pluralities shall be held. The candidate receiving a majority of votes is elected.

(9) The James L. Paddock Teaching Award (Paddock Award)

  1. Nominations for the Paddock Award shall be submitted at the occasion of the election in the spring term. Paddock Award nominations shall be made on a separate ballot which provides for sufficient space for reasons to support the nomination. Each student currently enrolled at The Fletcher School can submit one nomination.
  2. The Student Council decides to which Fletcher professor the Paddock Award will be given. The decision will be presented at commencement. In determining the winner of the Paddock Award the Student Council shall take the number of nominations of a professor as well as the reasons given in order to support the nomination into account.

(10) Announcements

  1. The announcement according to (2) 1. of this regulation shall contain the following or a similar explanation:
    1. In the spring term:
      1. Each spring the Student Body of The Fletcher School elects the three second-year representatives of the Student Council for the following academic year. They are elected amongst the second-year students (non Ph.D. students who are enrolled in their first or second semester during the spring term of the election and who are not graduating after the end of the spring term). A second-year representative must be enrolled at The Fletcher School for two consecutive fall and spring terms. 

        Only continuing students are allowed to vote in the election. Each student has three votes but may not cast more than one vote per candidate. The three candidates receiving the most votes are elected.
      2. Each spring the graduating class elects four representatives, Class Speaker, Class Secretary, Reunion Chair and Fund Agent. Only students graduating after the ongoing spring or the following fall semester can be elected and are eligible to vote for the four positions. 

        Each student has one vote for each position. The candidate receiving an absolute majority of votes is elected for a position. If no candidate receives an absolute majority of votes, a run-off election between the two candidates receiving the largest pluralities will be held. The candidate receiving a majority of votes in the run-off is finally elected.
      3. The election is organized and supervised by the Election Commission consisting of the following students: 3 members of commission

        If you want to nominate yourself or somebody else for one of the aforementioned positions please contact the Election Commission at pertinent email address.
      4. During the election period every student currently enrolled at The Fletcher School can also submit a nomination for the James L. Paddock Teaching Award (Paddock Award). 

        In the spring of 1992, Dr. James L. Paddock, Professor of International Business Relations, passed away. An award was established in his name to be given annually to a Fletcher professor who best exemplifies excellence in teaching. The Paddock Award was given away for the first time at commencement in 1993. The award plaque is located at the of the Ginn library stairs, opposite the water fountain. At commencement the Student Council will present this year's award. 

        Professor Paddock was known for his passion for teaching, enthusiasm for the subjects he taught and compassion towards his students. His particular gift was an ability to make complex material understandable and enjoyable. Despite his active involvement in Fletcher and in the international business field, Professor Paddock made it a point to be accessible to students and open to their concerns. Just as he was an insightful teacher, he was a caring and effective advisor. 

        This award is intended for the Fletcher professor who best exhibits these characteristics. As a Fletcher student, you are in the best position to judge who that person is. Please nominate one professor during the election period.
    2. In the fall term:
      1. Each fall the Student Body of The Fletcher School elects the three first-year representatives of the Student Council for the ongoing academic year. They are elected amongst the first-year students (non Ph.D. students who are enrolled in their first semester during the term of the election). 

        Only first-year students are allowed to vote in the election of the first-year representatives. Each student has three votes but may not cast more than one vote per candidate. The three candidates receiving the most votes are elected.
      2. The Student Body also elects the student representatives to various Committees and Advisory Boards. We are represented bytwo students (one first-year student, i.e. non Ph.D. student who is enrolled in his or her first semester, and one second-year student, i.e. non Ph.D. student who is enrolled in at least his or her second semester, in each of the following Committees:
        • Committee on Curriculum and Requirements for Degrees
        • Committee on Development and Alumni Relations
        • Committee on the Library
        • Committee on Diversity and Affirmative Action
        • Committee on the Honor Code
        • Committee on Energy Efficiency
        • Committee on Information Technology
        • Committee on Strategic Marketing
        • Committee on Student Academic Programs
        • Committee on Career Services.

        In addition six students are elected for the Student Advisory Board to the Office of Career Services. One first-year and one second-year student are elected for each of the following sectors:

        • the private sector,
        • the public sector and
        • the non-profit sector.

        First-year representatives to the Committees and Advisory Boards are elected by first-year students, second-year representatives are elected by second-year students. Each student has one vote for each position he or she is eligible to vote for. The candidate receiving a plurality of votes is elected for a position.

      3. In addition Ph.D. students (students enrolled in the Ph.D. program including students directly admitted into the Ph.D. program) elect amongst themselves a Ph.D. representative for the Student Council. Each Ph.D. student has one vote. The candidate receiving a plurality of votes is elected. 

        Furthermore two Ph.D. students represent the Student Body in the Committee on the Ph.D. Program. They are elected by the Ph.D. students. Each Ph.D. student hast two votes. The two candidates receiving the most votes are elected for these positions.
      4. The election is organized and supervised by the Election Commission consisting of the following students: 3 members of commission

        If you want to nominate yourself or somebody else for one of the aforementioned positions please contact the Election Commission at pertinent email address.
  2. The ballots ((5) of this regulation) shall contain the following or a similar explanation:
    1. Spring term: Ballot for the election of second-year representatives (Student Council):
      "Only second-year students (non Ph.D. students who are enrolled in their first or second semester during the spring term of the election and who are not graduating after the end of the spring term) are eligible to vote for the three second-year representatives of the Student Council. Each student has three votes but may not cast more than one vote per candidate. The three candidates receiving the most votes are elected."
    2. Spring term: Ballot for the election of class representatives
      "Only students graduating after the ongoing spring or the following fall semester are eligible to vote for the positions of Class Speaker, Class Secretary, Reunion Chair and Fund Agent. Each student has one vote for each position. The candidate receiving an absolute majority of votes is elected for a position. If no candidate receives an absolute majority of votes a run-off election between the two candidates receiving the largest pluralities will be held. The candidate receiving a majority of votes in the run-off is finally elected."
    3. Fall term: Ballot for the election of first-year representatives (Student Council and Committees and Advisory Boards):
      "Only first-year students (non Ph.D. students who are enrolled in their first semester during the term of the election) are eligible to vote in the election of the first-year representatives for the Student Council. Each student has three votes but may not cast more than one vote per candidate. The three candidates receiving the most votes are elected." 

      "First-year students (non Ph.D. students who are enrolled in their first semester during the term of the election) are eligible to elect one representative to each of the following positions in the Committees and Advisory Boards. Each student has one vote for each position. The candidate receiving a plurality of votes is elected for a position."
    4. Fall term ballot for the election of second-year representatives (Committees and Advisory Boards):
      "Second-year students (non Ph.D. students who are enrolled at least in their second semester during the term of the election) are eligible to elect one representative to each of the following positions in the Committees and Advisory Boards. Each student has one vote for each position. The candidate receiving a plurality of votes is elected for a position."
    5. Fall term ballot for the election of Ph.D. representatives (Student Council and Committee)
      "Ph.D. students (students enrolled in the Ph.D. program including students directly admitted into the Ph.D. program) elect one Ph.D. representative for the Student Council. Each Ph.D. student has one vote. The candidate receiving a plurality of votes is elected." 

      "Two Ph.D. representatives are elected for the Committee on the Ph.D. Program. Each Ph.D. student has two votes. The two candidates receiving the most votes are elected."
    6. Spring term: Nomination for the Paddock Award
      "In the spring of 1992, Dr. James L. Paddock, Professor of International Business Relations, passed away. An award was established in his name to be given annually to a Fletcher professor who best exemplifies excellence in teaching. Professor Paddock was known for his passion for teaching, enthusiasm for the subjects he taught and compassion towards his students. His particular gift was an ability to make complex material understandable and enjoyable. Just as he was an insightful teacher, he was a caring and effective advisor. 

      This award is intended for the Fletcher professor who best exhibits these characteristics. Please nominate one professor and briefly explain your reasons for doing so. The Student Council decides about the Paddock Award based on the submitted nominations. It is very important that you explain your reasons for nominating a professor as the quality of the comments is as important as the number of votes in determining the winner."

(11) Disputes

Any disputes arising out of the election can be brought before the Student Council fourteen calendar days after the end of the election. After consultation with the Election Commission the Student Council shall make a decision over the dispute within seven calendar days after the complaint is filed.