Resources

CHRCR has compiled a preliminary list of resources which examine the intersection between theories of and approaches to human rights and conflict resolution. We welcome the suggestion of articles, reports, books and other publications that should be added to the list.

To request an addition, please contact chrcr@tufts.edu.

Pre-Conflict


Ravi Bhavnani & David Backer, "Localized ethnic conflict and genocide: Accounting for differences in Rwanda and Burundi", 44(3) Journal of Conflict Resolution (2000).
This article offers a novel perspective on the subject of ethnic conflict. It is a highly technical attempt to isolate genocidal norms by examining the puzzle of variation in the scale of violence across episodes. The authors utilize the methodology of computational modeling for "its ability to represent variation in individual attributes within ethnic groups and over time, as well as the uncertainties characteristic of interactions between nominal rivals." Through providing insight into the dynamic episodes of conflict, they hope to promote efforts to minimize bloodshed. The link between human rights and conflict resolution lies in providing greater knowledge of the causes genocidal conflict, so as to promote focused understanding in Rwanda and Burundi.

Carnegie Commission On Preventing Deadly Conflict, "Preventing Deadly Conflict", 1997.
Assuming that extreme violators of human rights within states are potential aggressors on the international scene, it is sensible to prevent deadly conflict before it happens, thus ensuring the safety of not only domestic civilians, but the sanctity of international order. In order to effectively prevent conflict and its attendant effects oh human rights, three broad aims of preventive action have been identified. First, liberal democracy must be encouraged as the political system of choice, as this establishes the surest way of preventing the emergence of violent conflict. Second, ongoing conflicts must be prevented from spreading by ensuring steady and solid political, economic, and military barriers within and between states. Third, the reemergence of conflict must be prevented by achieving just and effective peace settlements in the aftermath of conflicts.

Abram Chayes & Antonia Handler Chayes, Eds., "Preventing Conflict In The Post-Communist World: Mobilizing International And Regional Organizations", (1996).
"Where ethnic conflict involves neither secessionism nor irredentism, but is instead the product of a minority group's intra-state struggle for equality, international organizations can play a constructive role in conflict resolution. This can be achieved through developing strategies for protecting minority ethnic rights under the rubric of an expansive human rights framework. ... The recent rise of ethnic conflict has accelerated a trend toward appending minority ethnic group rights--particularly with respect to social and cultural questions--to the traditional conception of human rights emphasizing the liberties and freedoms of individuals." (Steven Fagin, book review, HHRJ).

Matthew Krain, "State-Sponsored Mass Murder: The Onset and Severity of Genocides and Politicides", 41(3) Journal of Conflict Resolution 331 (1997).
The hypothesis tested in this work is that as opposed to the traditionally held notion that levels of concentration of power create genocides, openings in the political opportunity structure best predict the onset of state-sponsored mass-murder. The pure power paradigm does explain in which regimes one should expect to find genocides or politicides, but to him it does not explain at what point during these regimes' lifetimes one should expect to find them occur. By utilizing logit models, Krain isolates variables that cause the onset of genocide, and concludes that openings in the political opportunity structure are more important in understanding what affects the onset and degree of severity of genocides than other more static variables.